Tonia Cervantes

Foot Pain In The Arch

Find Out How To Manage Pes Planus

Overview

Acquired Flat Feet

Rigid fallen arches are usually easy to distinguish from the flexible variety by the pain the cause, but there is a simple test that a person can perform if he is not sure. He should stand on the toes, and if the arch appears, the condition is known as flexible flat foot and is nothing to worry about. There have been Olympic runners with flat feet of this kind. On the other hand, if the foot remains flat on the bottom when the person stands on his toes, the condition is rigid, and the individual should consult a podiatrist. The same is true if a person notices any change in the arches of his feet or if he as foot pain, whether or not this test suggests he has flexible flat feet.

Causes

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of fallen arches. These factors include the following. Genetic abnormality, torn or stretched tendons, amage to the posterior tibial tendon, bone fractures, dislocation of bones, nerve damage, rheumatoid arthritis and other medical conditions. In addition, there are other factors that can increase your risk of developing fallen arches. These risk factors include diabetes, pregnancy, Obesity and Aging.

Symptoms

Most people do not exhibit any symptoms of flat feet, but if the condition is due to an underlying problem, symptoms can include foot pain, mainly in the arch or heel areas, difficulty standing on tiptoes, swelling that occurs on the inside of the ankle, pain in the calf, knee, hip, or lower leg area, both feet lie flat on the ground with no gap, Shoes may not fit properly, heel may tilt away from the midline of the body more than usual, absence of foot arch when standing. If you are experiencing these symptoms and have flat feet, you should consider seeing your doctor or a podiatrist immediately for an examination.

Diagnosis

If you notice that your feet are flat, but you?re not really experiencing any pain, then you?re probably okay to go without a visit to the podiatrist (unless, of course, you have a lack of feeling in your foot). You can schedule a hair appointment instead, or maybe see a movie. However, once painful symptoms start to appear, it?s better to skip the hirsute (or cinematic) experience and go see your foot doctor. Your podiatrist will likely make the diagnosis by examining your foot visually, asking about symptoms you may be experiencing, and may test your muscle strength. You may be asked to stand on your toes (in a ballerina pose, if you prefer, although that?s certainly not required), or walk around the examining room, and you may need to show the podiatrist your shoes. He or she may comment on your excellent taste in footwear, but is more likely to check your shoes for signs of wear that may indicate fallen arches. Your podiatrist may recommend X-rays, a CT scan or an MRI in order to get a look at the interior of your foot, although the best diagnosis usually comes from the doctor?s own in-person examination.

pes planus treatment

Non Surgical Treatment

Treatment of flat feet really depends on how far the damage has progressed. Conservative treatments often include immobilization (often by cast or brace) to reduce inflammation. Your doctor may also recommend anti-inflammatory medication (like ibuprofen) to get your inflamed tendon to calm down a bit. Orthotics can also offer significant relief. If these treatments fail to significantly improve symptoms, then surgery may be your best option to get the structure of your body back where it needs to be. Your podiatrist can discuss surgical options with you in great depth.

Surgical Treatment

Adult Acquired Flat Feet

This is rare and usually only offered if patients have significant abnormalities in their bones or muscles. Treatments include joint fusion, reshaping the bones in the foot, and occasionally moving around tendons in the foot to help balance out the stresses (called tendon transfer).

After Care

Time off work depends on the type of work as well as the surgical procedures performed. . A patient will be required to be non-weight bearing in a cast or splint and use crutches for four to twelve weeks. Usually a patient can return to work in one to two weeks if they are able to work while seated. If a person's job requires standing and walking, return to work may take several weeks. Complete recovery may take six months to a full year. Complications can occur as with all surgeries, but are minimized by strictly following your surgeon's post-operative instructions. The main complications include infection, bone that is slow to heal or does not heal, progression or reoccurrence of deformity, a stiff foot, and the need for further surgery. Many of the above complications can be avoided by only putting weight on the operative foot when allowed by your surgeon.
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Do You Really Understand Heel Pain?

Overview

Pain At The Heel

Painful heels are the number 4 concern bringing patients

into the offices of many family doctors and the number one concern bringing patients to the offices of podiatric physicians (foot doctors).

Causes

While heel pain has many causes, it is usually the result of poor biomechanics (abnormalities in the way we walk). This can place too much stress on the heel bone and the soft tissues attached to it. The stress may result from injury, or a bruise incurred while walking, running or jumping on hard surfaces: wearing poorly constructed footwear : or being significantly over weight. Systemic diseases such as arthritis can also contribute to heel pain.

Symptoms

The primary symptom is pain in the heel area that varies in severity and location. The pain is commonly intense when getting out of bed or a chair. The pain often lessens when walking.

Diagnosis

In most cases, your GP or a podiatrist (a specialist in foot problems and foot care) should be able to diagnose the cause of your heel pain by asking about your symptoms and medical history, examining your heel and foot.

Non Surgical Treatment

Curing posterior heel pain requires calming the inflammation, resting the foot and increasing calf flexibility. Ice therapy and anti-inflammatory medications can be used to reduce the inflammation. Stopping exercises that stress the calf and Achilles is important. This includes walking, running and the use of stair climbers and elliptical machines. Placing a heel lift in each shoe can reduce some of the excess strain on the back of the heel. Stretching exercises to increase calf flexibility are important in curing this problem and preventing its recurrence. Wearing running shoes also provides good foot support and helps with this condition. Sometimes a walking boot is used to immobilize the ankle and let the area completely rest. Physical therapy is sometimes ordered to help reduce the inflammation and pain and to help improve the flexibility of the calf muscles. Occasionally these measures fail to relieve the pain and surgery may be needed. The surgical procedure involves removing bone spurs and repairing any damage to the tendon.

Surgical Treatment

If treatment hasn't worked and you still have painful symptoms after a year, your GP may refer you to either an orthopaedic surgeon, a surgeon who specialises in surgery that involves bones, muscles and joints or a podiatric surgeon, a podiatrist who specialises in foot surgery. Surgery is sometimes recommended for professional athletes and other sportspeople whose heel pain is adversely affecting their career. Plantar release surgery is the most widely used type of surgery for heel pain. The surgeon will cut the fascia to release it from your heel bone and reduce the tension in your plantar fascia. This should reduce any inflammation and relieve your painful symptoms. Surgery can be performed either as open surgery, where the section of the plantar fascia is released by making a cut into your heel or endoscopic or minimal incision surgery - where a smaller incision is made and special instruments are inserted through the incision to gain access to the plantar fascia. Endoscopic or minimal incision surgery has a quicker recovery time, so you will be able to walk normally much sooner (almost immediately), compared with two to three weeks for open surgery. A disadvantage of endoscopic surgery is that it requires both a specially trained surgical team and specialised equipment, so you may have to wait longer for treatment than if you were to choose open surgery. Endoscopic surgery also carries a higher risk of damaging nearby nerves, which could result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling or some loss of movement in your foot. As with all surgery, plantar release carries the risk of causing complications such as infection, nerve damage and a worsening of your symptoms after surgery (although this is rare). You should discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques with your surgical team.

heel pad anatomy

Prevention

Heel Pain

You should always wear footwear that is appropriate for your environment and day-to-day activities. Wearing high heels when you go out in the evening is unlikely to be harmful. However, wearing them all week at work may damage your feet, particularly if your job involves a lot of walking or standing. Ideally, you should wear shoes with laces and a low to moderate heel that supports and cushions your arches and heels. Avoid wearing shoes with no heels. Do not walk barefoot on hard ground, particularly while on holiday. Many cases of heel pain occur when a person protects their feet for 50 weeks of the year and then suddenly walks barefoot while on holiday. Their feet are not accustomed to the extra pressure, which causes heel pain. If you do a physical activity, such as running or another form of exercise that places additional strain on your feet, you should replace your sports shoes regularly. Most experts recommend that sports shoes should be replaced after you have done about 500 miles in them. It is also a good idea to always stretch after exercising, and to make strength and flexibility training a part of your regular exercise routine.
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Leg Length Discrepancy Shoe Wear Pattern

Overview

Children of many ages can have legs of unequal lengths. The medical diagnosis for this condition is called leg length discrepancy. The difference in length can be as small as one centimeter and as large as six centimeters or more. The greater the discrepancy, the more your child will have difficulty walking and maintaining proper posture. Significant differences in leg length can also cause functional scoliosis and problems with other parts of the legs and lower body. This makes leg length discrepancy treatment very important in order to maintain proper health and function of the child. The greater the difference in leg length, the higher the likelihood of necessary treatment.Leg Length Discrepancy

Causes

Leg length discrepancies can be caused by poor alignment of the pelvis or simply because one leg is structurally longer than the other. Regardless of the reason, your body wants to be symmetrical and will do its best to compensate for the length difference. The greater the leg length difference, the earlier the symptoms will present themselves to the patient. Specific diagnoses that coincide with leg length discrepancy include: scoliosis, lumbar herniated discs, sacroiliitis, pelvic obiliquity, greater trochanteric bursitis, hip arthritis, piriformis syndrome, patellofemoral syndrome and foot pronation. Other potential causes could be due to an injury (such as a fracture), bone disease, bone tumors, congenital problems (present at birth) or from a neuromuscular problem.

Symptoms

As patients develop LLD, they will naturally and even unknowingly attempt to compensate for the difference between their two legs by either bending the longer leg excessively or standing on the toes of the short leg. When walking, they are forced to step down on one side and thrust upwards on the other side, which leads to a gait pattern with an abnormal up and down motion. For many patients, especially adolescents, the appearance of their gait may be more personally troublesome than any symptoms that arise or any true functional deficiency. Over time, standing on one's toes can create a contracture at the ankle, in which the calf muscle becomes abnormally contracted, a condition that can help an LLD patient with walking, but may later require surgical repair. If substantial enough, LLD left untreated can contribute to other serious orthopaedic problems, such as degenerative arthritis, scoliosis, or lower back pain. However, with proper treatment, children with leg length discrepancy generally do quite well, without lingering functional or cosmetic deficiencies.

Diagnosis

A qualified musculoskeletal expert will first take a medical history and conduct a physical exam. Other tests may include X-rays, MRI, or CT scan to diagnose the root cause.

Non Surgical Treatment

Non-surgical treatment can be effective. A shoe lift may be recommended if the leg length difference is less than 1 inch. More significant leg length discrepancies may require a surgical procedure. In children, surgical procedures are available to help make leg lengths more equal.

Leg Length Discrepancy

bestshoelifts

Surgical Treatment

In growing children, legs can be made equal or nearly equal in length with a relatively simple surgical procedure. This procedure slows down the growth of the longer leg at one or two growth sites. Your physician can tell you how much equalization can be gained by this procedure. The procedure is performed under X-ray control through very small incisions in the knee area. This procedure will not cause an immediate correction in length. Instead, the limb length discrepancy will gradually decrease as the opposite extremity continues to grow and "catch up." Timing of the procedure is critical. The goal is to reach equal leg length by the time growth normally ends. This is usually in the mid-to-late teenage years. Disadvantages of this option include the possibility of slight over-correction or under-correction of the limb length discrepancy. In addition, the patient's adult height will be less than if the shorter leg had been lengthened. Correction of significant limb length discrepancy by this method may make a patient's body look slightly disproportionate because of the shorter leg. In some cases the longer leg can be shortened, but a major shortening may weaken the muscles of the leg. In the thighbone (femur), a maximum of 3 inches can be shortened. In the shinbone, a maximum of 2 inches can be shortened.
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Mortons Neuroma Treatment

Overview

MortonPatients with Morton?s neuroma present with pain in the forefoot, particularly in the ?ball? of the foot. However, not all pain in the forefoot is a Morton?s neuroma. In fact, most chronic pain in the forefoot is NOT the result of a Morton?s neuroma, but rather is from metatarsalgia - inflammation (synovitis) of the ?toe/foot? joints. The symptoms from Morton?s neuroma are due to irritation to the small digital nerves, as they pass across the sole of the foot and into the toes. Therefore, with a true Morton?s neuroma, it is not uncommon to have nerve-type symptoms, which can include numbness or a burning sensation extending into the toes. There are several interdigital nerves in the forefoot. The most common nerve to develop into a neuroma is between the 3rd and 4th toes. With a true neuroma, the pain should be isolated to just one or two toes.

Causes

Anything that causes compression or irritation of the nerve can lead to the development of a neuroma. One of the most common causes comes from wearing shoes that have a tapered toe box, or high-heeled shoes that cause the toes to be forced into the toe box and overload pressure onto the forefoot. An injury or trauma to the forefoot may also lead to a neuroma. People at a higher risk of developing a Neuroma include people with certain foot deformities, such as bunions or hammertoes. Certain foot types, such as flat feet (Pronation) More flexible feet, and woman after pregnancy.

Symptoms

Typically, there's no outward sign of this condition, such as a lump. Instead, you may experience the following symptoms. A feeling as if you're standing on a pebble in your shoe. A burning pain in the ball of your foot that may radiate into your toes. Tingling or numbness in your toes. It's best not to ignore any foot pain that lasts longer than a few days. See your doctor if you experience a burning pain in the ball of your foot that's not improving, despite changing your footwear and modifying activities that may cause stress to your foot.

Diagnosis

A thorough subjective and objective examination from a physiotherapist is usually sufficient to diagnose a Morton's neuroma. Investigations such as an X-ray, ultrasound, MRI, CT scan or bone scan may sometimes be used to assist with diagnosis, assess the severity of the injury and rule out other conditions.

Non Surgical Treatment

Nonsurgical treatment is tried first. Your doctor may recommend any of the following. Padding and taping the toe area, shoe inserts, changes to footwear, for example wearing shoes with wider toe boxes or flat heels, Anti-inflammatory medicines taken by mouth or injected into the toe area, nerve blocking medicines injected into the toe area, other painkillers, physical therapy. Anti-inflammatories and painkillers are not recommended for long-term treatment. In some cases, surgery is needed to remove the thickened tissue and inflammed nerve. This helps relieve pain and improve foot function. Numbness after surgery is permanent.plantar neuroma

Surgical Treatment

About one person in four will not require any surgery for Morton's neuroma and their symptoms can be controlled with footwear modification and steroid/local anaesthetic injections. Of those who choose to have surgery, about three out of four will have good results with relief of their symptoms. Recurrent or persisting (chronic) symptoms can occur after surgery. Sometimes, decompression of the nerve may have been incomplete or the nerve may just remain 'irritable'. In those who have had cutting out (resection) of the nerve (neurectomy), a recurrent or 'stump' neuroma may develop in any nerve tissue that was left behind. This can sometimes be more painful than the original condition.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of developing Morton's neuroma avoid wearing tight and/or high-heeled shoes. Maintain or achieve ideal body weight. If you play sports, wear roomy, properly fitting athletic footwear.
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Shoe Lifts The Answer To Leg Length Imbalances

There are actually two different kinds of leg length discrepancies, congenital and acquired. Congenital means that you are born with it. One leg is structurally shorter than the other. As a result of developmental periods of aging, the human brain senses the stride pattern and identifies some difference. The body usually adapts by dipping one shoulder over to the "short" side. A difference of less than a quarter inch isn't grossly abnormal, doesn't need Shoe Lifts to compensate and typically doesn't have a serious effect over a lifetime.

Leg Length Discrepancy Shoe Lift

Leg length inequality goes mainly undiagnosed on a daily basis, however this problem is simply fixed, and can eradicate many incidents of back pain.

Treatment for leg length inequality commonly consists of Shoe Lifts. Many are very reasonably priced, commonly being under twenty dollars, compared to a custom orthotic of $200 and up. Differences over a quarter inch can take their toll on the spine and should probably be compensated for with a heel lift. In some cases, the shortage can be so extreme that it requires a full lift to both the heel and sole of the shoe.

Chronic back pain is easily the most common ailment affecting people today. Around 80 million men and women suffer from back pain at some point in their life. It's a problem that costs employers huge amounts of money year after year on account of lost time and productivity. Fresh and superior treatment methods are constantly sought after in the hope of decreasing the economic influence this condition causes.

Shoe Lift

Men and women from all corners of the earth experience foot ache due to leg length discrepancy. In these types of cases Shoe Lifts are usually of beneficial. The lifts are capable of alleviating any discomfort and pain in the feet. Shoe Lifts are recommended by many qualified orthopaedic orthopedists.

So that they can support the human body in a well-balanced manner, the feet have got a very important job to play. Irrespective of that, it is sometimes the most overlooked area in the body. Some people have flat-feet meaning there may be unequal force exerted on the feet. This will cause other parts of the body including knees, ankles and backs to be affected too. Shoe Lifts ensure that suitable posture and balance are restored.

Hammer Toe Signs Symptoms

HammertoeOverview

If the joint on one of your toes, usually the toe next to the big toe or the smallest toe, points upward rather than lying flat, you might have a Hammer toes. The condition is actually a deformity that happens when one of the toe muscles becomes weak and puts pressure on the toe?s tendons and joints. This pressure forces the toe to become misshapen and stick up at the joint. Also, there?s frequently a corn or callus on top of the deformed toe. This outgrowth can cause pain when it rubs against the shoe.

Causes

Hammertoes are more commonly seen in women than men, due to the shoe styles women frequently wear: shoes with tight toe boxes and high heels. Genetics plays a role in some cases of hammertoes, as does trauma, infection, arthritis, and certain neurological and muscle disorders. But most cases of contracted toes are associated with various biomechanical abnormalities of the feet, such as flat feet and feet with abnormally high arches. These biomechanical abnormalities cause the muscles and tendons to be used excessively or improperly, which deforms the toes over time.

Hammer ToeSymptoms

The middle joint of the toe is bent. The end part of the toe bends down into a claw-like deformity. At first, you may be able to move and straighten the toe. Over time, you will no longer be able to move the toe. It will be painful. A corn often forms on the top of the toe. A callus is found on the sole of the foot. Walking or wearing shoes can be painful.

Diagnosis

The earlier a hammertoe is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and treatment options. Your doctor will be able to diagnose your hammertoe with a simple examination of the foot and your footwear. He or she may take an x-ray to check the severity of the condition. You may also be asked about your symptoms, your normal daily activities, and your medical and family history.

Non Surgical Treatment

What will a doctor do? Treat any foot complaints such as corns, calluses by periodically reducing the lesion and applying appropriate pads and dressings. Recommend the silicone toe prop. If an infection is present, then anti-septic dressings, antibiotics and pads to redistribute pressure away from the lesion may be necessary. In the case of a mallet toe, trigger toe or claw toe. If a corn occurs at the end of the toe, a silicone or leather prop may be used to straighten the toe. In a hammertoe deformity, a silicone prop to redistribute pressure away from a corn may be necessary. The doctor may give footwear advice. In severe cases, corrective surgery may be necessary. The doctor may recommend orthosis to correct a mechanical complaint of the foot, such as 3/4 length silicone insoles.

Surgical Treatment

In some cases, usually when the hammertoe has become more rigid and painful, or when an open sore has developed, surgery is needed. Often patients with hammertoe have bunions or other foot deformities corrected at the same time. In selecting the procedure or combination of procedures for your particular case, the foot and ankle surgeon will take into consideration the extent of your deformity, the number of toes involved, your age, your activity level, and hammertoe other factors. The length of the recovery period will vary, depending on the procedure or procedures performed.
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Bunions Treatment Non Surgical

Overview
Bunion Pain Bunions (sometimes referred to as Hallux abducto valgus) are enlargements of the inner portion of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint at the base of your big toe. More commonly, they are described as a bump on the side of the big toe. The foot bunion is the result of changes that occur in the framework of the bones at the front of your foot. Instead of pointing straight ahead, your big toe begins to lean into your second toe, throwing the bones out of alignment. Bunions are progressive, meaning you will not just wake up one day and find a visible bump (unless it was caused by a bug bite or something of that nature). Bunions are generally attributed to genetics and improper footwear. It may take years for a bunion to fully develop and begin to show symptoms. Some people may never experience symptoms at all. Bunions may begin to form during one?s teenage years, but they usually occur in people aged 20-30. Women are three times more likely than men to have bunions.

Causes
Bunions occur with greater regularity in women than men, and they may sometimes run in families. You may also have an increased likelihood of bunions if you are born with certain bone abnormalities in your feet. Factors that may increase your chances of developing a bunion include long-term use of narrow-toed and/or high-heeled footwear. Arthritis. Toe trauma. Laxity of your connective tissues (ligament laxity). Limb length inequalities. Genetics. Certain foot problems (e.g. flatfoot, over-pronation, etc.).

Symptoms
Symptoms of a bunion include irritated skin, sensitivity to touch, and pain when walking or running. Since the bunion may grow so prominent as to affect the shape of the foot, shoes may no longer fit properly, and blisters may form at the site of friction and pressure. Bunions may grow so large that an individual must wear shoes that are a larger size than they would otherwise wear. If the bunion becomes a severe case, walking may become difficult.

Diagnosis
Before examining your foot, the doctor will ask you about the types of shoes you wear and how often you wear them. He or she also will ask if anyone else in your family has had bunions or if you have had any previous injury to the foot. In most cases, your doctor can diagnose a bunion just by examining your foot. During this exam, you will be asked to move your big toe up and down to see if you can move it as much as you should be able to. The doctor also will look for signs of redness and swelling and ask if the area is painful. Your doctor may want to order X-rays of the foot to check for other causes of pain, to determine whether there is significant arthritis and to see if the bones are aligned properly.

Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment may be surgical or non-surgical. The goal of non-surgical treatment is to relieve pressure on the foot and to prevent pressure sores and foot ulcers. This is accomplished by prescribing accommodative shoes with a wide toe box - sandals or extra depth shoes with soft moulded insoles. It may also be possible to relax the leather on shoes to make room for a bunion. Bunion Pain

Surgical Treatment
There is more than one way to surgically treat a bunion. While there are some general guidelines, some procedures work well for some Surgeons and poorly for others. Your Surgeon should consider the severity of your bunion, medical condition, lifestyle, and recuperation time when considering the surgical treatment.

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